The article explores the issues of punishment, justice. To this purpose the theory of
punishment as punishment according to the lex talion principle, proposed by I. Kant as
well as utilitarian theories of punishment opposed to it, are analyzed. The fundamental
advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are revealed. To illustrate and evaluate
them, as well as to justify the own views, the author analyzes the current Russian legislation
(not only criminal and penal enforcement, but also administrative, civil, labor), as well as legal monuments of different eras, draws parallels between criminal and other types of
legal responsibility. The views of some authors of the neo-Kantian direction are examined
and the author’s position is given, in particular, an understanding of justice as a principle
of equal interests of individuals is grounded; fair punishment as the most optimal means
aimed at restoring a fair rule of law; it is argued that only the commission of an unlawful
act by a sane person should serve as an indispensable basis for legal liability, while guilt,
harm and causation are its relative conditions; substantiates the potential unlimited legal
facts affecting the justice of the sentence and the relativity of the principle of inevitability
Keywords: justice; punishment; fair punishment; legal liability; I. Kant; utilitarianism; talion; purpose of punishment; sanity; inevitability of punishment
Researcher of the Udmurt Branch of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, PhD. in Law.
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
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