Introduction: the article discusses the administrative basis of public service in Russia. Purpose: to highlight features of administrative regulation of the formation and development of professional public service in Russia in the prerevolutionary and Soviet periods. The methodological basis is formed by general scientific and private scientific (historical-legal, comparative-legal, descriptive, content analysis) methods of cognition of legal reality. The conclusions are substantiated that the development of a centralized Russian state entailed significant changes in the recruitment for the army that became regular in the middle of the XVI century. The main result of the development of public service in the pre-revolutionary period was the formation of a system of extensive legislative and subordinate regulation of key types of public service – military and civil (state and court), which in terms of legal technology was one of the most advanced for its time and served as the basis for further development of the administrative institute of public service in our country. It is noted that the Soviet nomenclature system of public administration and service in its characteristics did not correspond to global trends in the formation of a rational bureaucracy and was based on abstract ideological principles that were more political than legal in nature. Politicized principles of partisanship and classism that prevailed in our country and were primarily of a doctrinal political and legal nature, were aimed at forming a national legal ideology and determined the extremely specific content of legal policy on the development of administrative bureaucracy. The Soviet party nomenclature was never able to transform into a full-fledged public service and become independent of the political conjuncture, which did not allow the final formation of the administrative institution of public service in the Soviet period. The scientific and practical significance of the work consists in substantiating the provisions that the processes of democratization in Russia led to the gradual construction of a new model of public service based on modern achievements of social philosophy, theory of state and law, constitutional, administrative and other branches of law.
Keywords: public service; public administration; nomenclature system; democratization of public service.
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,Professor of the Department of Administrative and Legal Disciplines, Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Vologda, Russian Federation.
, e-mail email@example.com
1. Kabashov S.Yu. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba: osnovnye etapy razvitiya kak nauki i professii ot Drevnego mira do nachala XX veka: ucheb. posobie [Public service: key stages of development as a science and profession from the Ancient world to the beginning of the XX century: textbook]. Moscow, 2020. 286 p.
2. Klyuchevskii V.S. Sochineniya: v 9 t. T. 6 [Essays: in 9 volumes. Volume 6]. Ed. by Yanin V.L. Moscow, 1987–1990. 476 p. 3. Mikhailova I.B. Sluzhilye lyudi Severo-Vostochnoi Rusi v XIV – pervoi polovine XVI veka: ocherki sotsial’noi istorii [Service class people of Northeastern Russia in the XIV – first half of the XVI century: essays of social history]. Saint Petersburg, 2003. 639 p.
4. Khrestomatiya po istorii SSSR s drevneishikh vremen do kontsa XVIII veka: posobie dlya uchitelya [Anthology on the history of the USSR from ancient times to the end of the XVIII century: teacher manual]. Comp. by Epifanov P.P., Epifanova O.P. Moscow, 1989. 287 p.
5. Rossiiskoe zakonodatel’stvo X–XX vekov: zakonodatel’stvo perioda stanovleniya absolyutizma: v 9 t. T. 4 [Russian legislation of the X–XX centuries: legislation of the period of formation of absolutism: in 9 volumes. Volume 4]. Ed. By Chistyakov O.I. Moscow, 1986. 511 p.
6. Malyi entsiklopedicheskii slovar’: v 4 t. T. 4 [Small Encyclopedic dictionary: in 4 volumes. Volume 4]. Moscow, 1997. 624 p.
7. Bespalova O.A. General Regulations February 28, 1720 and his role in the formation of collegial office work in Russia in the XVIII century. Innovatsionnaya nauka = Innovative Science, 2015, no. 10, pp. 20–24. (In Russ.).
8. Table of ranks. Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina (MGYuA) = Courier of Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), 2015, no. 8 (12), pp. 298–315. (In Russ.).
9. Kiselev M.A. Manifesto on Freedoms of the Nobility in 1762: reconstruction of the history of the text. Rossiiskaya istoriya = Russian History, 2014, no. 4, pp. 37–52. (In Russ.).
10. Tomsinov V.A. Zakonodatel’stvo imperatora Aleksandra I. 1801–1811 gody: ucheb. posobie [Legislation of Emperor Alexander I. 1801–1811: textbook]. Moscow, 2011. 368 p.
11. Imennoi ukaz ot 6 avgusta 1809 g., dannyi Senatu “O pravilakh proizvodstva v chiny po grazhdanskoi sluzhbe i ob ispytaniyakh v naukakh, dlya proizvodstva v Kollezhskie Asessory i Statskie Sovetniki” [Nominal decree of August 6, 1809, given to the Senate “On the rules for the production of public service ranks and tests in the sciences, for the production of Collegiate Assessors and State Councillors]. Available at: https://base.garant.ru/58101907/ (accessed June 8, 2023).
12. Svod Zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii. Tom III. Biblioteka reprintnykh izdanii [The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. Volume III. Library of reprints]. Available at: https://civil.consultant.ru/reprint/books/175/408.html (accessed February 9, 2023).
13. Borshchik N.D., Tret’yakov A.V. Istoriya gosudarstvennogo i mestnogo upravleniya v Rossii IX–XXI vekov: ucheb. posobie [History of state and local government in Russia of the IX–XXI centuries: textbook]. Moscow, 2023. 218 p.
14. Degtyarev A.P. Transition to universal military service and debates in the State Council of Russia. Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal = Military History Journal, 2005, no. 1, pp. 59–63. (In Russ.).
15. Maslov N.A. Voinskaya obyazannost’ v Rossii (1699-1918 gg.) (istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie): avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Military duty in Russia (1699–1918) (historical and legal research): Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Moscow, 2015. 22 p.
16. Istoriya politsii Rossii [History of the Russian police]. Available at: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istoriya_politsii_Rossii (accessed May 14, 2023).
17. MVD Rossii: entsikl. [Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia: Encyclopedia]. Moscow, 2002. 623 p.
18. Moiseev I.A. Stanovlenie i razvitie politsii Rossii: osnovnye etapy [Formation and development of the Russian police: key stages]. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/stanovlenie-i-razvitie-politsii-rossii-osnovnye-etapy/viewer (accessed May 14, 2023).
19. Konvoinaya i tyuremnaya strazha v Rossiiskoi imperii. Mezhdunarodnaya voenno-istoricheskaya assotsiatsiya [Convoy and prison guards in the Russian Empire. International Military Historical Association]. Available at: http://imha.ru/ knowledge_base/base-10/1144537509-konvoynaya-i-tyuremnaya-strazha-v-rossiyskoy-imperii.html (accessed May 15,2023).
20. Zhukova S.M. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba: ucheb. posobie [Public service: textbook]. Orenburg, 2013. 177 p.
21. Obolonskii A.V. Bureaucracy: in search of a new model (evolution of theory and practice of public administration in recent decades). Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost’ = Social Sciences and Modernity, 2014, no. 3, pp. 5–22. (In Russ.).
22. Manokhin V.M. Sovetskaya gosudarstvennaya sluzhba [Soviet State Service]. Moscow, 1966. 195 p.
23. Baklanov P.A. Class ranks and military ranks: social nature and problems of correlation. Voennaya mysl’ = Military Thought, 2006, no. 7, pp. 41–46. (In Russ.).
24. Regulations on the passage of service by the commanding staff of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (approved by the Resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR No. 19, the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR No. 2,135 of September 22, 1935). In: SZ SSSR [Collection of laws of the USSR]. 1935. No. 57. Art. 469. (In Russ.).
25. On the establishment of military ranks of the supreme command of the Red Army: Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces of May 7, 1940. In: Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta Soyuza SSR [Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR]. 1940. No. 15. (In Russ.).
26. On the establishment of military ranks of the supreme command of the Navy”: Decree of the Presidium of the Armed Forces of the USSR of May 7, 1940 (as amended of March 3, 1955). In: Vedomosti VS SSSR [Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR]. 1940. No. 15. (In Russ.).
27. Regulations on the passage of service by the commanding staff of the Main Directorate of State Security of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR: resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR and the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR of October 16, 1935. In: Sobranie zakonodatel’stva SSSR [Collection of Legislation of the USSR]. 1936. No. 26. Art. 240b. (In Russ.).
28. On the establishment of class ranks for prosecutorial and investigative employees of the Prosecutor’s Office: Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 16, 1943 (as amended October 28, 1980). In: Vedomosti VS SSSR [Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR]. 1943. No. 39. (In Russ.).
29. On the establishment of diplomatic ranks: Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces of May 28, 1943. Vedomosti VS SSSR = Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 1943, no. 22. (In Russ.).
30. Zvaniya voennosluzhashchikh MOOP-MVD [Ranks of military personnel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs]. Available at: https://vedsimvol.mybb.ru/ (accessed June 8, 2023).
31. On special ranks of the rank and file and commanding staff of the internal affairs bodies: Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of October 23, 1973. In: Vedomosti VS SSSR [Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR]. 1973. No. 43. Art. 603. (In Russ.).
32. On approval of the Regulations on Service in the Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation and the text of the Oath of an employee of the Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation: Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation No. 4202-1 of December 23, 1992 (ed. of 11/21/2011, with amendments. from 30.12.2012). In: Vedomosti SND i VS RF [Vedomosti of the Congress of Peoples’ Deputies and the Supreme Soviet]. 1993. No. 2. Art. 70. (In Russ.).
33. Starilov Yu.N. Issues of reforming public service in the Russian Federation. Pravovedenie = Legal Science, 1995, no. 6, pp. 12–27. (In Russ.).
34. Oboturova N.S. Human rights and dignity as basic concepts of modern penal policy. In: Penitentsiarnaya sistema Rossii v sovremennykh usloviyakh razvitiya obshchestva: ot paradigmy nakazaniya k ispravleniyu i vosstanovleniyu: sb. Materialov mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf.: v 3 ch. (Vologda, 11 noyabrya 2020 g.). Ch. 2 [The penitentiary system of Russia in modern conditions of society development: from the paradigm of punishment to correction and restoration: collection of materials of the international scientific and practical conference: in 3 parts. Part 2 (Vologda, November 11, 2020)]. Vologda, 2021. Pp. 37–43. (In Russ.).
35. Oboturova N.S. The problem of human rights in the context of the ideas of humanism and transhumanism. Penitentsiarnaya nauka = Penitentiary Science, 2020, vol. 14, no. 2 (50), pp. 155–161. (In Russ.).
36. Nagornykh R.V. Organizatsionno-pravovye aspekty kadrovogo obespecheniya deyatel’nosti ugolovno-ispolnitel’noi sistemy Ministerstva yustitsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Organizational and legal aspects of staffing the activities of the penitentiary system of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation]. Moscow, 2003. 161 p.