Introduction. Public relations are partly regulated by law, defined as rules of conduct, generally binding, formally defined, accepted in accordance with the established procedure, and guaranteed by the state. The system of Russian law includes a set of independent branches of law. The internal structure of the system of law has its own regularities, its development is conditioned by objective necessity, changes in legislation and social relations themselves, that is, the subject of regulation. The article considers existence and changes in the Russian system of law in connection with active identification of new branches of law in it by “progressive” researchers. The views available in science on the possibility or impossibility of recognizing penitentiary law as a branch are analyzed, and the etymological meaning of the term “penitentiary” for Russian reality is revealed. It is noted that initially there were prison studies, which gradually transformed into the science of penitentiary law. The purpose of the article is to define the content of penitentiary law as one of the directions of scientific research and refute the idea that penitentiary law belongs to the branch of Russian law. The methodological basis is formed by general scientific and private scientific (logical-legal, comparative, system-structural, content analysis) methods of cognition of legal reality. Conclusions: the article authors come to the conclusion that penitentiary law, as an independent branch, complex branch or sub-branch of penal law, has not been formed, and the attempts to substantiate it are artificial and theoretically untenable. It is necessary to focus legal scholars’ efforts on the problems existing within traditional and established branches of law, and not on artificial replication of new ones. At the same time, in the system of scientific knowledge, penitentiary science is certainly present as a field of study of issues related to the organization and functioning of the Russian penal system of representatives of various branches of law (penal, criminal, administrative, civil law, etc.).
Keywords: branch of law; system of law; administrative law; penitentiary law; penitentiary science; subject and method of legal regulation; penitentiary norms; penitentiary relations; penitential; correctional.Bobrov A.M., Mel’nikova N.A. Is there any reason to single out penitentiary law in the system of Russian law? Penitentiary Science, 2022, vol. 16, no. 2 (58), pp. 118–126. doi: 10.46741/2686-9764.2022.58.2.001.
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, associate professor of the Department of Administrative-Legal Disciplines, Faculty of Law, Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of FSIN Russia, Vologda, Russian Federation
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of State and Legal Disciplines of the Perm Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Perm, Russia, associate professor of the Department of Administrative and Constitutional Law of the Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russia
, e-mail email@example.com
1. Alekseev S.S. Problems of the theory of law: course of lectures. In: Sobranie sochinenii. V 10 tomakh [+ Spravochnyi tom]. Tom 3 [Collected works. In 10 volumes [+ Reference volume]. Volume 3]. Moscow: Statut, 2010. 781 p. (In Russ.). ISBN 978-5-8354-0672-2.
2. Bel’skii K.S. Politseiskoe pravo: lektsion. kurs [Police law: course of lectures]. Moscow: Delo i Servis, 2004. 814 p. ISBN 5-8018-0239-8.
3. Vokuev M.R. Migratsionnoe pravo sovremennoi Rossii: teoretiko-pravovoi analiz: avtoref. dis. ...kand. yurid. nauk [Migration law of modern Russia: theoretical and legal analysis: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Rostov on Don, 2006. 28 p.
4. Golovastova Yu.A. Penitentiary law as a sub-branch of the criminal-executive law. Probely v rossiiskom zakonodatel’stve=Gaps in Russian Legislation, 2018, no. 2, pp. 87–90. (In Russ.).
5. Golovkin R.B. Penitentiary law: some aspects of the theory and practice of its operation. Rossiiskaya penitentsiarnaya sistema: aktual’nye pravovye i prakticheskie voprosy=Russian Penitentiary System: Current Legal and Practical Issues, 2014, 1, pp. 25–32. (In Russ.).
6. Grishkovets A.A. On the issue of the so-called “administrative-tort law”. Vestnik Vserossiiskogo instituta povysheniya kvalifikatsii sotrudnikov Ministerstva vnutrennikh del Rossiiskoi Federatsii=Bulletin of the All-Russian Institute for Advanced Studies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2020, no. 1 (53), pp. 54–61. (In Russ.).
7. Demko T.N. Medieval penitentiales and penitentiary service: intersection of meanings. Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya=Applied Legal Psychology, 2018, no. 1 (42), pp. 135–144. (In Russ.).
8. Korablin K.K., Ostapenko A.B. Developing the conceptual foundations for the science of penitentiary (prison) law prison studies as an independent branch of russian criminal law (second half of the XIX beginning of the XX century). Vserossiiskii kriminologicheskii zhurnal=Russian Journal of Criminology, 2021, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 484–494. (In Russ.).
9. Matveev S.P. Politseiskoe pravo: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Police law: textbook for universities]. Moscow: Yurait, 2021. 269 p. ISBN: 5-5341-4343-6.
10. Matuzov N.I. Legal nihilism and legal idealism as two sides of the “same coin”. Pravovedenie=Legal Science, 1994, no. 2, pp. 3–16. (In Russ.).
11. Shestun A.G., Bazunov V.V., Belyakov A.Yu. Mezhdunarodnye standarty i resheniya Evropeiskogo suda po pravam cheloveka v sisteme penitentsiarnogo prava Rossii [International standards and decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the system of penitentiary law of Russia]. Ed. by A.A. Votinova, E.A. Timofeeva. Samara, 2015. 285 p. ISBN 9785-91612-118-6.
12. Kirillovskaya N.N. Mezhdunarodnye standarty obrashcheniya s zaklyuchen-nymi pri ispolnenii ugolovnykh nakazanii: monografiya [International standards for treatment of prisoners when executing criminal penalties: monograph]. Ed. by R.A. Romashov. Vologda: VIPE FSIN Rossii, 2020. 186 s. ISBN 978-5-94991-537-0.
13. Mel’nikova N.A., Zhitkov A.A. Prospects for the development of administrative justice in the Russian Federation. Vestnik Permskogo instituta FSIN Rossii=Bulletin of the Perm Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, 2017, no. 2 (25), pp. 51–57. (In Russ.).
14. Migachev Yu.I., Tikhomirov S.V. Voennoe pravo: uchebnik [Military law: textbook]. Moscow: Yurlitinform, 2005. 462 p. ISBN 5-93295-123-0.
15. Nagornykh R.V. Transformation of the subject of administrative law in the conditions of the formation of administrative constitutionalism in modern Russia. In: Nauchnye trudy. Rossiiskaya akademiya yuridicheskikh nauk [Scientific Works. Russian Academy of Legal Sciences]. Moscow: Yurist, 2020. Pp. 61–66. (In Russ.).
16. Ob utverzhdenii nomenklatury nauchnykh spetsial’nostei, po kotorym prisuzhdayutsya uchenye stepeni, i vnesenii izmeneniya v polozhenie o sovete po zashchite dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata nauk, na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni doktora nauk, utverzhdennoe prikazom Ministerstva obrazovaniya i nauki Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 10.11.2017 № 1093: prikaz Minobrnauki Rossii ot 24.02.2021 № 118 [On approval of the nomenclature of scientific specialties for which academic degrees are awarded, and amendments to the Regulations on the Council for the defense of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Sciences, for the degree of Doctor of Sciences, approved by Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of November 10, 2017 No. 1093: order of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation of February 24, 2021 No. 118]. Available at: http://pravo.gov.ru (accessed December 12, 2021).
17. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva: uchebnik [General theory of law and state: textbook]. Ed. by V.V. Lazarev. Moscow: Yurist, 1994. 360 p.
18. Oganesyan S.M. Penitentsiarnaya sistema gosudarstva: istoriko-teoreticheskii i pravovoi analiz: dis.… d-ra. yurid. nauk [The penitentiary system of the state: historical, theoretical and legal analysis: Doctor of Sciences (Law) dissertation]. Saint Petersburg, 2005. 554 p.
19. Pozdnyshev S.V. Osnovy penitentsiarnoi nauki [Fundamentals of penitentiary science]. Moscow: Yuridicheskoe izdatel’stvo Narkomyusta, 1923. 342 p.
20. Romashov R.A. Incentive sanctions in the norms of penitentiary law. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Pravovedenie=News of Higher Educational Institutions. Jurisprudence, 2014, no. 4 (315), pp. 213–224. (In Russ.).
21. Romashov R.A. Theory of penitentiary legal relations. Vestnik Samarskogo yuridicheskogo instituta=Bulletin of the Samara Law Institute, 2015, no. 4 (18), pp. 47–54. (In Russ.).
22. Romashov R. A., Tonkov E. N. Tyur’ma kak “Grad zemnoi” [Prison as an “earthly city”]. Saint Petersburg: Aleteiya, 2014. 656 p. ISBN 978-5-90670-534-1.
23. Romashov R.A. Penal and penitentiary law: theoretical aspects of understanding and correlation. Vestnik Samarskogo yuridicheskogo instituta=Bulletin of the Samara Law Institute, 2015, no. 3. (17), pp. 69–73. (In Russ.).
24. Savenkov A.N., Kudashkin A.V. Military Law: statement of the problem and solutions. Gosudarstvo i pravo=State and Law, 2021, no. 4, pp. 7–34. (In Russ.).
25. Spitsnadel V.B. Genezis ugolovno-ispolnitel’nogo prava v kontekste stanovleniya i evolyutsii penitentsiarnoi sistemy Rossii: avtoref. dis. … d-ra. yurid. nauk [Genesis of penal law in the context of the formation and evolution of the Russian penitentiary system: Doctor of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Saint Petersburg, 2004. 50 p.
26. Stepanov A.V. Migrational law as a new structural formation in the system of law in the Russian Federation: pro et contra (analysis of viewpoints). Administrativnoe pravo i protsess=Administrative Law and Procedure, 2014, no. 11, pp. 32–35. (In Russ.).
27. Struchkov N.A. Kurs ispravitel’no-trudovogo prava: Problemy obshch. chasti [Course of correctional labor law: problems of general parts]. Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1984. 240 p.
28. Utkin V.A. Russian science of penal law: a historical essay. Ugolovnaya yustitsiya=Russian Journal of Criminal Law, 2017, no. 9, pp. 69–77. (In Russ.).
29. Utkin V.A. Penitentiary law as “the right for deprivation of liberty”. In: Aktual’nye problemy teorii bor’by s prestupnost’yu i pravoprimenitel’noi praktiki : sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Actual problems of the theory of combating crime and law enforcement practice: inter-university collection of scientific works]. Krasnoyarsk, 1998. Pp. 62–63. (In Russ.).
30. Khabrieva T.Ya. Migratsionnoe pravo: sravnitel’no-pravovoe issledovanie: monografiya [Migration law: comparative legal research: monograph]. Moscow: IZiSP, 2019. 400 p. ISBN 978-5-9516-0858-1.
31. Shershenevich G.F. Obshchaya teoriya prava. V 4 tomakh. Tom 1 [General theory of law. In 4 volumes. Volume 1]. Moscow: Izdanie Brat’ev Bashmakovykh, 1910. 805 p.
32. Shpilevskii M.M. Politseiskoe pravo kak samostoyatel’naya otrasl’ pravovedeniya [Police law as an independent branch of jurisprudence]. Odessa: tipografiya Ul’rikha i Shul’tse, 1875. 196 p.
33. Entsiklopediya penitentsiarnogo prava [Encyclopedia of penitentiary law]. Ed. by R. A. Romashov. Samara: Samarskii yuridicheskii institut FSIN Rossii, 2013. 688 p. ISBN 978-5-91612-057-8.
34. Bentham J. Theorie des peines et des recompenses. Tome 2 [Theory of penalties and rewards. Volume 2], 1811. 368 p. (In French).
34. Penn W. A collection of the works of William Penn. Volume 2. London: J. Sowle, 1726. P. 783.