Introduction: the article considers the high-alert regime and the associated restrictive measures related to the freedom of movement and introduced in connection with the threat of the spread of COVID-19. Aim: with the help of theoretical and legal analysis, we investigate the nature of the high-alert regime and the set of anti-epidemic measures implemented to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic; we also analyze the constitutionality and validity of restrictions on the right of an individual to freedom of movement and the proportionality of the restrictive measures imposed (quarantine, complete lockdown) in relation to the elderly, a particularly vulnerable population group. Methods: dialectical method, theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic, comparative legal method, system-structural method, method of interpretation of legal norms, and others. Results: the research allows us to say that the set of terms related to the high-alert regime is not clearly defined from the legal perspective; moreover, there is no legally bounding limit to its operation (the period of its being in effect) and a mechanism for its direct implementation. We argue that the restriction of the freedom of movement for persons aged 65 and older is disproportionate in the context of their health protection interests. The article defines the following guarantees of restricting the exercise of the individual’s right to freedom of movement: the legality and validity of temporary administrative and legal measures, the balance between private interests (preserving the protection of the legal status) and public interests (preventing the spread of the infection), specifics of the epidemiological situation, a set of timely measures aimed at providing particularly vulnerable categories of citizens with everything vital. Conclusions: we propose to interpret the restriction of the exercise of an individual’s rights under a high-alert regime as a legally justified state intervention (through the adoption of proportionate restrictive measures) in the sphere of an individual’s private autonomy in order to protect national security, public order, human life and health. We consider it necessary that legislation should specify the provisions defining the range of circumstances when a high-alert regime is to be introduced, the limits, boundaries and scope of additional powers of special actors, and the scope of possible discretion; the means to ensure this administrative and legal regime; the list of rights and freedoms subject to restriction when it is established, as well as the mechanism for their protection.
Keywords: Citizens’ rights and freedoms; freedom of movement; COVID-19 pandemic; high alert regime; restrictive measures; proportionality; elderly citizens (persons aged 65 and older)
Candidate of Sciences (Law), associate professor at the Department of Special Training, Voronezh Institute of Advanced Training of Еmployees of the EMERCOM of Russia, Voronezh, Russian Federation.
, e-mail email@example.com
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, associate professor at the Department of State and Legal Disciplines, Faculty of Training Specialists for the Judicial System, Central Branch of the Russian State University of Justice, Voronezh, Russian Federation.
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Avak’yan S.A. Konstitutsionnoe pravo Rossii. Uchebnyi kurs: uchebnoe posobie: v 2 tomakh [Constitutional law of Russia. Training course: textbook: in 2 volumes]. 5th edition, revised and supplemented. Moscow: Norma: INFRA M, 2014.
2. Zhdanov R.I., Khabibullin I.M., Khammatova E.F., Aidarov V.I., Zhdanova S.I., Dvoenosov V.G., Khairullin R.N. Active longevity: long-term clinical observation. Rossiiskii zhurnal geriatricheskoi meditsiny=Russian Journal of Geriatric Medicine, 2020, no. 4, pp. 339–349. DOI 10.37586/2686-8636-4-2020-339-349. (In Russ.).
3. Alekseev S.S. Obshchie dozvoleniya i obshchie zaprety v sovetskom prave [General permission, and general prohibitions in Soviet law]. Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1989. 288 p.
4. Aleshkova I.A. Pravo na svobodu peredvizheniya: voprosy teorii i praktiki: dissertatsiya na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [Right to freedom of movement: theory and practice: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation]. Moscow, 2005. 172 p.
5. Gromyko A.A. Coronavirus as a factor in world politics. Nauchno-analiticheskii vestnik Instituta Evropy RAN=Scientific and Analytical Herald of the Institute of Europe RAS, 2020, no. 2, pp. 5–13. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/koronavirus-kak-faktor-mirovoy-politiki (accessed February 25, 2021). (In Russ.).
6. Duraev T.A. Svoboda peredvizheniya v doktrine Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii: avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [Freedom of movement in the doctrine of the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Saratov, 2007. 25 p.
7. Ivanova M.A. Problems of the realization of the citizens’ rights to freedom of movement, choice of location and residence. Mariiskii yuridicheskii vestnik=Mari Law Vestnik, 2015, no. 1 (12), pp. 159–161. (In Russ.).
8. Kazantseva E.V. Realization of the right to freedom of movement. Uchenye zapiski Krymskogo federal’nogo universiteta imeni V. I. Vernadskogo. Yuridicheskie nauki=Scientific Notes of V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University. Legal Sciences, 2019, vol. 5 (71), no. 4, pp. 350–357. (In Russ.).
9. Kovtun N.A. Evolution of legislative regulation of social services in Russia. Nauka i obrazovanie: khozyaistvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel’stvo; pravo i upravlenie=Science and Education: Economy; Entrepreneurship; Law and Management, 2020, no. 7, pp. 40–44. (In Russ.).
10. Kokotov A.N. Konstitutsionnoe pravo Rossii: kurs lektsii [Constitutional law of Russia: a course of lectures]. Moscow: Prospekt, 2007. 296 p.
11. Kruss V. I. Restrictions of human rights and legal restrictions: problems of doctrinal differentiation. Yuridicheskaya tekhnika=Juridical Technique, 2018, no. 12. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ogranicheniya-prav-chelovekai-pravovye-ogranicheniya-problemy-doktrinalnogo-razgranicheniya (accessed March 3, 2021). (In Russ.).
12. Limonova N.A. The problem of the abuse of rights in the field of freedom of movement. Rossiiskaya yustitsiya=Russian Justice, 2014, no. 6, pp. 56–58. (In Russ.).
13. Mirolyubova S.Yu. Pravo na svobodu peredvizheniya v predelakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii: konstitutsionno-pravovoi aspect [The right to freedom of movement within the Russian Federation: constitutional and legal aspect]. Moscow: Statut, 2013. 154 p.
14. Ozel’ V.І. Constitutionality of restrictions on human rights and freedoms in quarantine conditions. DICTUM FACTUM, 2020, no. 2 (7), pp. 43–51.
15. Petrosyan V.A. A new vector of protecting the interests of older people in self-isolation: from pathogenic to salutogenic. Meditsina. Sotsiologiya. Filosofiya. Prikladnye issledovaniya=Medicine. Sociology. Philosophy. Applied Research, 2020, no. 4, pp. 143–145. (In Russ.).
16. Petrukhin I. L. The legal regime in the conditions of social disaster. Gosudarstvo i pravo=State and Law, 1993, no. 2, pp. 46–50. (In Russ.).
17. Podmarev A.A. Konstitutsionnye osnovy ogranicheniya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: dissertatsiya na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [Constitutional foundations of the restriction of human and civil rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation]. Saratov, 2001. 235 p.
18. Potemkina O.Yu. The impact of COVID-19 on freedom of movement and migration in the European Union. Nauchnoanaliticheskii Vestnik Instituta Evropy RAN=Scientific and Analytical Herald of the Institute of Europe RAS, 2020, no. 3, pp. 88–94. (In Russ.).
19. Slavna O.V. Regulatory regulation of restriction of freedom of movement in the conditions of emergency situation in Ukraine. Bulletin of the Penitentiary Association of Ukraine, 2020, no. 2 (12), pp. 30–37.
20. Sorokina E.A. State anti-epidemic policy: Swedish experience in countering coronavirus. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii=Bulletin of Saint Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2020, no. 3 (87), pp. 42–53. DOI: 10.35750/2071-8284-2020-3-42-53. (In Russ.).
21. Khabrieva T.Ya., Chirkin V.E. Teoriya sovremennoi konstitutsii: monografiya [Theory of the modern constitution: monograph]. Moscow: Norma, 2005. 319 p.
22. COVID-19 and Human Rights. We are all in this together. Available at: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/human_rights_and_covid19_russian.pdf (accessed February 3, 2021). (In Russ.).
23. Freckelton I. COVID-19 curfews: Kenyan and Australian litigation and pandemic protection. Journal of Law and Medicine, 2020, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 117–131.
24. Guterres A. We are all in this together: human rights and COVID-19 response and recovery. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/un-coronavirus-communications-team/we-are-all-together-human-rights-andcovid-19-response-and (accessed February 3, 2021).
25. Burlacu A., Crisan-Dabija R.A., Covic A., Raiu C., Mavrichi I., Popa I.V., Crespo M.L. Pandemic lockdown, healthcare policies and human rights: Integrating opposed views on COVID-19 public health mitigation measures. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 509–516.
26. Ramji-Nogales J., Lang I.G. Freedom of movement, migration, and borders. Journal of Human Rights, 2020, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 593–602.
27. Zolka V., Tsarenko O., Kushnir I., Tsarenko S., Havrik R. The impact of the pandemic COVID-19 on the human right to freedom of movement. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 2021, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 376–388.
28. Thym D. Travel bans Europe: a legal appraisal. US Immigration and Ayslum Law and Policy. Available at: http://eumigrationlawblog.eu/travel-bans-in-europe-a-legal-appraisal-part-i/ (accessed February 3, 2021).
29. Vansweevelt T., Dewallens F. Healthcare law and the COVID-19 outbreak in Belgium. Medicine and Law, 2020, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 131–150.