Introduction: the article deals with the issues of protection of the rights and freedoms of persons against whom criminal proceedings are carried out to prove them guilty of committing a crime; these issues have always been in the focus of attention of the progressive world community and the legislator. Aims: to analyze the legislation and law enforcement practice of Russia and some other countries in the field of the implementation of the right to protection by persons against whom criminal procedural activities are carried out to prove them guilty of committing a crime, to identify problem issues of a legal nature in this field, and to formulate scientifically substantiated recommendations to address them (minimization). Methods: the dialectical method of scientific knowledge forms the methodological basis of our study. We also use the following methods of scientific cognition: systematic, formal-logical, comparative-legal, etc. Results: the practice of ensuring the right to protection from suspicion or charge, including the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, shows that not all issues of legal regulation in this area have been resolved to a degree that satisfies science and practice; human rights established by international legal standards are still being violated, the principle of adversarial parties in criminal proceedings is not implemented to the fullest extent, especially in pre-trial proceedings. Discussion: currently, the following issues are debatable: about the possibility of participation of the defender before an official suspicion or charge is brought against the person in an initiated criminal case (from the moment of the beginning of the implementation of procedural actions against a person, aimed at verifying the report of a crime and the involvement of the person in the commission of this crime, before the initiation of a criminal case, as well as from the moment of the implementation of a procedural action in an initiated criminal case affecting the rights and freedoms of the person against whom it is being carried out, and aimed at proving them guilty of committing the crime); about the possible participation of another person as a defender upon the request of the defendant, as well as the scope of the requirements such persons should comply with, and a set of criteria, according to which a decision should be made to allow the individual who does not have the status of defense attorney to act as a defender. Conclusions: based on the results of the study, we formulate proposals for improving the criminal procedure legislation aimed at expanding the scope of possible participation of a defender in criminal proceedings at the stage before the official suspicion or charge is brought, and determining the procedure for considering applications for allowing other persons who do not have the status of defense attorney to act as a defender.
Keywords: Criminal prosecution; defender; defense attorney; petition
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, associate professor at the Department of Law Enforcement Activity, Criminal Law and Process, Pskov State University, Pskov, Russian Federation.
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Candidate of Sciences (Law), associate professor at the Department of Regime and Intelligence-Gathering Activities in the Penal System, Pskov Branch of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Pskov, Russian Federation.
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