The article analyzes the influence of the idea of humanism on the formation of the concept of human rights, it is shown that humanism is a complex phenomenon, manifested in various forms of social consciousness and social practice. The author considers humanism as an idea in which discrepancies between the desired and the actual at different stages of history are revealed, which determines its programmatic nature and turns it into the most important factor in social development and the way to resolve the contradictory nature of man. According to the author, the main problem in the development of the concept of human rights, designed to apply to all people, unlike legal and civil rights, was the justification of the universal fundamental component of the identity of the subjects of these rights, not related to a specific space and time. The article substantiates that the decisive role in shaping the concept of human rights was played by the ideas of humanism of the New Age, which confirmed the picture of the world in which a person, as a rational, moral, free, independent creature capable of creating himself, took center stage. The importance of a modern critical analysis of the dialectics of the Enlightenment is emphasized, since the implementation of its ideals led not only to scientific, technical and social achievements, but also to completely opposite results, such as global crises - environmental and anthropological. The author problematizes the topic of human rights, believing that today it needs legal and philosophical reflection in the context of the new risk zone that the anthropological crisis has opened and an attempt to get out of it through transhumanistic evolution. It is the concept of human rights in its modern interpretation that should act as a stabilizing factor in developing scenarios for the future of our civilization, determining the boundaries of the transformation of human and society.
Keywords: humanism; the idea of humanism; transhumanism; person; personality;
human dignity; human rights; society; anthropological crisis
Professor of the Department of Philosophy and History of the Psychological Department of the Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of the Federal Penal Service of Russia, Vologda, Russian Federation, Dsc. in Philosophy, Associate Professor.
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Berdyaev N. A. Filosofiya svobody [Philosophy of freedom]. Moscow, 2004. 333 p. (In Russ.).
2. Dubrovskij D. I. (red.) Global’noe budushchee 2045. Konvergentnye tekhnologii (NBIKS) i transgumanisticheskaya evolyuciya [Global Future 2045. Converged Technologies (NBICS) and Transhumanist Evolution]. Moscow, 2013. 272 p. (In Russ.).
3. Lokk Dzh. Dva traktata o pravlenii [Two Treatises of Government]. Sochineniya. V 3 tomah. Tom 3 [Compositions in 3 vol. Vol. 3]. Moscow, 1988, pp. 137–405. (In Russ.).
4. Kant I. Sochineniya. V 6 tomah. Tom 4. CHast’ 1 [Works in 6 vol. Vol. 4, part 1]. Moscow, 1965. 554 p. (In Russ.).
5. Kuchuradi I. Ponyatiya chelovecheskogo dostoinstva i prav cheloveka [The concepts of human dignity and human rights]. Voprosy filosofii – Philosophy Issues, 2018, no. 5, pp. 43–50. (In Russ.).
6. Marks K. Ekonomichesko-filosofskie rukopisi 1844 g. [Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844]. Sochineniya K. Marksa, F. Engel’sa v 50 tomah. Tom 42 [Works of K. Marx, F. Engels in 50 vol. Vol. 42]. Moscow, 1965, pp. 41–174. (In Russ.).
7. Mezhuev V. M. Gumanizm [Humanism]. Novaya filosofskaya enciklopediya. V 4 tomah. Tom 1 [New philosophical encyclopedia. In 4 vol. Vol. 1]. Moscow, 2010, p. 268. (In Russ.).
8. Nagornyh R. V. Administrativno-pravovoe regulirovanie gosudarstvennoj sluzhby Rossijskoj Federacii v pravoohranitel’noj sfere. Avtoref. diss. dokt. yurid. nauk [Administrative and legal regulation of the public service of the Russian Federation in law enforcement. Author’s abstract of the diss. Dsc. in Law]. Moscow, 2017. 42 p. (In Russ.).
9. Oboturova G. N. Transgumanizm – utopiya ili real’nost’? [Transhumanism - Utopia or Reality?]. Vestnik instituta: prestuplenie, nakazanie, ispravlenie – Bulletin of the Institute: crime, punishment, correction, 2015, no. 1 (29), pp. 79–82. (In Russ.).
10. Subbotina N. D. Ideya gumanizma kak faktor obshchestvennogo razvitiya [The idea of humanism as a factor in social development]. Voprosy filosofii – Philosophy Issues, 2018, no. 8, pp. 5–15. (In Russ.).
11. Gusejnov A. A., Stepin V. S., Smirnov A. V., Gadzhiev G. A., Bondar’ N. S., Solov’ev E. YU., Mezhuev V. M., Barenbojm P. D., Lapaeva V. V., CHizhkov S. L. Pravo i nacional’nye tradicii [Law and national traditions]. Voprosy filosofii – Philosophy Issues, 2016, no. 12, pp. 5–41. (In Russ.).
12. Frank S. L. Real’nost’ i chelovek [Reality and man]. Available at: http://altrea.narod.ru/frank/realnost.html (accessed 25.05.2020). (In Russ.).