The article discusses the way to improve the application of norms of the institution of the substitution of the unserved part of punishment with a milder penalty (hereinafter – punishment substitution) by establishing conditions under which this type of exemption from punishment can be canceled by the court with the actual serving of the unserved part of the punishment. Purpose: based on the analysis of scientific literature, doctrinal positions, legislative provisions, and examples of judicial practice, to substantiate the prospects and expediency of introducing a conditional nature of the application of a sentence substitution. Methods: historical, comparative legal, method of interpretation of legal norms, theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic. Results: a retrospective review of domestic criminal legislation showed that the substitution of punishment was initially considered as a form of conditional early release from serving a sentence, which is why it was characterized by a similar conditional nature. Over time, the institution of punishment substitution has become more independent and at the same time acquired an unconditional nature of application. Within the framework of the current legal regulation, convicts who, after the application of Article 80 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, maliciously evade serving a substitute sentence, find themselves in an unjustifiably preferential position. There are also significant risks associated with the post-criminal behavior of a person whose situation has improved as a result of the punishment replacement. Moreover, this substitution of punishment implies that the convicted person will continue to behave lawfully. However, there are no legal mechanisms that guarantee the law-abiding behavior of a convicted person after the application of a sentence substitution. These circumstances determine prospects for the introduction of a conditional nature of the application of punishment substitution. Conclusion: as a result of the conducted research, in order to improve and optimize the institution of punishment substitution, the introduction of the conditional nature of its application is justified, as well as the addition and amendment of Article 80 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is proposed.
Keywords: Release from punishment; substitution of punishment; conditional nature; conditions of application; encouragement; stimulation; justice
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Criminal Law of the Russian State University of Justice, Moscow, Russia
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