Preconditions for establishment the procedural order for initiation of proceedings in a criminal case in the Russian legislation of the 11th-17th centuries
The article considers legislative acts that are significant for the science of the domestic criminal process. Among them: Russian Truth (XI-XV cc.), Pskov Court Charter (1397– 1467), Novgorod Court Charter (1440-1471), Law Book of Duke Ivan III (1497), Law Book of Tsar Ivan IV (1550) and Russian Law Code (1649). The provisions of these monuments of the history of Russian law concerning the direct initiation of the proceedings in the criminal case are analyzed, and their assessment is given. The article is conditionally divided into three parts. In the first part the distinguishing features of the criminal process of the 11th12th centuries are given, the charge of which was carried out privately. The second part focuses on the normative acts of the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, which fixed in their provisions public principles in the implementation of criminal prosecution. The third part is devoted to the study of the norms of the Russian Law Code of 1649 – the first codified act in the history of Russia, in which the system of investigative actions and production for certain categories of persons received their development. In each historical period the features and main traits of the current legislative norms, which were the prerequisites for the establishment of procedural rules for criminal proceedings are reflected, some of which are still in effect in Russian criminal proceedings.
Keywords: initiation of proceedings in a criminal case; a complaint; claim; process; investigative actions.
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