Introduction: the article studies the specifics of self-actualization of men aged 25–50, for the first time held in a pre-trial detention center as the suspected and the accused. This mechanism was studied in connection with other personality characteristics, presumably causing its launch in conditions of imprisonment. The goal was to express the character of self-actualization with a personality structure consisting of five basic traits (neuroticism, extroversion, affection, self-control, expressiveness), life-meaning orientations, guilt, reflexivity and coping. Methods: psychological testing with the help of the Personal Orientation Inventory, “Big Five personality traits”; “LifeMeaning Orientations”, GuiltInventory, Reflexivity test (IMR), Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). Results: the surveyed can achieve genuine self-actualization instead of criminal, but for this they need the help of a psychologist (the share of men with pseudo-self-actualization amounts to 5.6%; 20.6% has a low overall level of self-actualization). The group is described by the following: a high level of neuroticism in the personality structure combined with a low level of affection; tending to low indicator of meaningfulness of life (46.7% of men have a low indicator); an average level of guilt (mainly guilt as a state), while half of the sample shows a low level of moral norms; a fairly high level of reflexivity (46% of men have high indicators); the coping strategy “escape/avoidance” or (less often) “confrontation” is used by the surveyed, and “self-control” is unpopular among them. Conclusions: the results show the presence of the problem of self-actualization in this category of men, but also the possibility of its resolution through the correctional and developmental work of psychologists aimed at optimizing personal characteristics closely related to self-actualization (coping, meaningfulness of life, neuroticism and affection, reflexivity, guilt).
Keywords: men held in pre-trial detention centers; self-actualization; personal characteristics: life-meaning orientations, guilt, individual measure of reflexivity, coping; connection of selfactualization features with other personal characteristics.
Senior Researcher at the Department 3 of the Scientific Research Center – 2 of the Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Moscow, Russia
, e-mail email@example.com
Doctor of Sciences (Psychology), Associate Professor, Chief Researcher at the Department 3 of the Scientific Research Center – 2 of the Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Moscow, Russia
, e-mail TsvetkovaNA@yandex.ru
1. Arapova A.S. Psikhoprofilaktika u osuzhdennykh muzhskogo pola destruktivnykh posledstvii prebyvaniya v sledstvennom
izolyatore: dissertatsiya na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata psikhologicheskikh nauk [Psychological prevention of
destructive consequences of being in a pre-trial detention center for male convicts: Candidate of Sciences (Psychology)
dissertation]. Ryazan, 2011. 221 p.
2. Volkov V.N. Yuridicheskaya psikhologiya: uchebnik [Legal psychology: textbook]. Moscow: YuNITI-DANA, 2015. 422 p.
ISBN 978-5-238-01537-8. Available at: https://rucont.ru/efd/352837 (accessed July 15, 2022)
3. Dementii L.I., Malenov A.A., Malenova A.Yu. Self-actualization level and adaption potential as personality coping
resources at the stage of self-realization. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal=Siberian Journal of Psychology, 2020, no. 78,
pp. 80–98. (In Russ.).
4. Dyadchenko E.A., Timofeeva E.A. Psychological assistance to the suspected and accused at the stage of detention
(organizational and legal aspect). In: Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty razvitiya ugolovno-ispolnitel’noi sistemy
v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i za rubezhom: sbornik tezisov vystuplenii i dokladov uchastnikov Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoprakticheskoi konferentsii, g. Ryazan, 28–29 noyabrya 2018 goda [Theoretical and practical aspects of the development
of the penal system in the Russian Federation and abroad: collection of abstracts of speeches and reports of participants
of the international scientific and practical conference, Ryazan, November 28–29, 2018]. Ryazan: Ak. prava i upravleniya,
2018. Pp. 840–850. ISBN: 978-5-7743-0871-2. (In Russ.).
5. Zheludkov M.A., Kovalevskii V.E. A critical view of the theory of self-actualization through the analysis of basic needs of a
self-serving criminal. Pravo: istoriya i sovremennost’=Law: History and Modernity, 2021, no. 4(17), pp. 119–127. (In Russ.).
6. Zhmurov D.V., Zav’yalov A.G. Criminal self-actualization. Kriminologicheskii zhurnal Baikal’skogo gosudarstvennogo
universiteta ekonomiki i prava=Criminology Journal of Baikal National University of Economics and Law, 2013, no. 3,
pp. 66–71. (In Russ.).
7. Il’inykh A.E., Asanova N.V., Yashanina A.A. Creativity and self-actualization in the context of life orientations, empathy and
self-esteem. Nauchno-pedagogicheskoe obozrenie=Pedagogical Review, 2016, no. 1 (11), pp. 31–37. (In Russ.).
8. Karpov A.V. Specificity of the relationship of reflexivity and self-actualization of personality. Yaroslavskii psikhologicheskii
vestnik=Yaroslavl Psychological Bulletin, 2019, no. 3 (45), pp. 6–11. (In Russ.).
9. Kovaleva K.V. The self-actualization of personality problem in the works of local and foreign authors. Zhurnal psikhiatrii i
meditsinskoi psikhologii=Journal of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, 2019, no. 1 (45), pp. 77–85. (In Russ.).
10. Krotova D.N. The problem of self-actualization of the personality of men in places of detention. Global’nyi nauchnyi
potentsial=Global Scientific Potential, 2018, no. 8 (89), pp. 28–29. (In Russ.).
11. Krotova D.N., Mamchenko A.M. The existential dilemma of the reflecting delinquent: self-actualization or suicide?
In: Dolgova A.I. (Ed.). Problemy determinatsii i preduprezhdeniya prestupnosti: sbornik nauchnykh statei [Problems of
determination and crime prevention: collection of scientific articles]. Moscow: RKA, 2017. Pp. 517–522. (In Russ.).
12. Krotova D.N., Tsvetkova N.A. Substantiation of the relevance of studying the self-actualization of mature men held in
pre-trial detention centers. Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya=Applied Legal Psychology, 2022, no. 2 (59), pp. 6–15.
13. Kryazheva S.G. Features of the choice of coping behavior strategies by convicts in prison. Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya
psikhologiya=Applied Legal Psychology, 2020, no. 3. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article /n/osobennosti-vyborastrategiy-koping-povedeniya-osuzhdennymi-v-mestah-lisheniya-svobody (In Russ.). (Accessed July 15, 2022).
14. Leont’ev D.A. Self-actualization as a driving force of personal development: historical and critical analysis. In:
Sovremennaya psikhologiya motivatsii [Modern Psychology of Motivation]. Moscow: Smysl, 2002. Pp. 13–46. (In Russ.).
15. Mamchenko A.M., Tsvetkova N.A. Scientific and theoretical prerequisites for socio-psychological prevention of suicide
in remand prisoners in jail. Uchenye zapiski RGSU= Scientific Notes of RSSU, 2016, vol. 15, no. 2, pp.71–79. (In Russ.).
16. Maslow A. Self-actualized people – a study of psychological health. Gorodskoe upravlenie=City Administration, 2011,
no. 1 (174), pp. 93–98. (In Russ.).
17. Murav’eva O.V., Ziborova E.I. Self-actualization in mature people, its features at different levels of reflection. Nauchnyi
elektronnyi arkhiv=Scientific Electronic Archive. Available at: http://econf.rae.ru/article/7181 (In Russ.). (Accessed March
18. Mukhtarova A.Kh. The problem of self-actualization of personality in the research of foreign scientists. Innovatsionnaya
nauka=Innovative Science, 2017, no. 8, pp. 66–67. (In Russ.).
19.Ovcharova E.V. The algorithm of the psychologist’s work to determine the degree of the convicted person correction.
Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya=Applied Legal Psychology, 2021, no. 4(57), pp. 46–52. (In Russ.).
20. Rogers C. Several major discoveries. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya=The Moscow University Herald. Series 14.
Psychology, 1990, no. 2, pp. 58–65. (In Russ.).
21. Frankl V. Chelovek v poiskakh smysla [Man’s Search for Meaning]. Moscow: Progress, 1990. 366 p. ISBN 5-01-001606-0.
22. Fromm E. Anatomiya chelovecheskoi destruktivnosti [The anatomy of human destructiveness]. Moscow: AST, 2020.
736 p. ISBN 978-5-17-103239-5.
23. Shostrom E. Chelovek-manipulyator. Vnutrennee puteshestvie ot manipulyatsii k aktualizatsii [Man the manipulator:
the inner journey from manipulation to actualization]. Translated from English. Moscow: Aprel’-Press, 2004. 190 p.
24. Yashchenko E.F. Tsennostno-smyslovaya kontseptsiya samoaktualizatsii: monografiya [Value-semantic concept of
self-actualization: monograph]. Chelyabinsk: YuUrGU, 2005. 382 p. ISBN 5-696-02981-7.
25. Buhler Ch. Theoretical observations about life’s basic tendencies. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1959, vol. 13,
no. 3, pp. 561–581.
26. Caynak S., Kutlu Y. The psychological symptom, probability of suicide and coping ways of a group of convict and
detainee. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2016, no. 17 (2), pp. 93–98.
27. Dzhansarayeva R.Y., Nurmaganbet Y.T., Zhanibekov A.K., Turgumbayev M.Y. et al. Problems in prevention of suicidal
behavior of prisoners. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, 2016, no. 7 (4), pp. 781–787.
28. Mamchenko A.M., Tsvetkova N.A., Krotova D.N., Rybakova A.I. Suicide risk among suspects and defendants in
detention center. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2018, no. 50, pp. 1,226–1,231.
29. Pratt D., Tarrier N., Dunn G., Awenat Y., et al. Cognitive–behavioural suicide prevention for male prisoners: a pilot
randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 2015, no. 45, pp. 3,441–3,451.
30. Tees A-M. Clarbour J., Groningen H., Durham N.D.T. Attachment, coping and suicidal behavior in male prisoners.
Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2017, no. 4 (44), pp. 566–588.