The paper is devoted to the criminological characteristics of the escapes (from the place of imprisonment, from arrest or from custody). The public danger of escapes is revealed, official statistics are given on prison crimes in general and escapes in particular. Based on doctrinal sources and regulations, the author formulates the definition of escape, indicates the moment when the crime is committed, lists its features, considers the ways, causes and conditions of the escapes and gives recommendations for their prevention. Each thesis is confirmed by a concrete practical example. The author draws attention to the fact that many scientific works have been completed on the problem under consideration, a number of dissertations have been defended, and a set of scientific articles has been prepared. Nevertheless a periodic reference to the topic of escapes is justified by the continuous improvement of the methods of escaping convicts and detainees, using more and more tricks. From the point of view of organizing the prevention of escapes, it is important to clarify their causes and conditions, since in most cases this is due to deficiencies in the activities of the institutions of the penal system and unit employees, whose duties include supervision of convicts and prisoners. Based on the analysis of criminal cases involving escapes, a list of determinants of escapes activity is provided. The author comes to the conclusion that the timely identification of the reasons for escapes, the elimination of the conditions for their commission, the planned and highquality implementation of the entire complex of preventive measures will help minimize the incidence of crimes of this category.
Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the St. Petersburg University of the Federal Penal Service of Russia, Pushkin, Russian Federation, Dsc. in History
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
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