Probation Service in Russia: Policy Choice and Development Prospects
penal enforcement system; probation; Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia; penal enforcement inspectorates; individual program of resocialization; social adaptation and social rehabilitation.
Introduction: the article is devoted to the study of issues related to the formation of the state probation service in the Russian Federation and legislative regulation of its activities. Purpose: to study organization and activities of the probation service of Russia with regard to the specifics of functioning of the penal enforcement system of the Russian Federation. Methods: our research is based on the dialectical method of scientific cognition. The article uses general scientific (analysis, synthesis, induction, etc.), private scientific and special methods of cognition (comparative legal, formal legal, statistical). Results: general characteristics are given and specific features of the use of the probation institute are identified within the framework of the state penitentiary policy. It seems possible to determine key features of the probation service in Russia, such as comprehensive solution to the issue of social adaptation and resocialization of convicts by establishing three types of probation – sentencing (executive), penitentiary and post-penitentiary; identification of a wide list of probation subjects endowed with an appropriate amount of powers with regard to the specifics of the activity; organization of work with convicts according to specially formed individual programs; maintaining a register of convicts involved in the probation program. The draft Federal law “On probation in the Russian Federation” (Project ID01/05/04-22/00126333) is analyzed. It is determined that this draft law is largely of a framework nature. In particular, the procedure for interaction and coordination of probation subjects’ activities is not described; there are no provisions on the exercise of control and supervision over the probation service; principles of the probation service functioning are not disclosed; the procedure for filling out and maintaining a personal file of the convicted person engaged in probation is not presented; and probation terms in relation to persons under administrative supervision are not considered. Conclusions: taking into account the study of foreign experience, the authors outline possible prospects for the probation service development in Russia, give certain proposals to improve the system of non-custodial sentences execution. In order to effectively organize activities of the service being created in Russia, it is necessary to develop a high-quality legal framework regulating the institute of probation, ensure interdepartmental interaction of probation subjects, establish a system of qualification requirements for probation service positions, proper material, resource and scientific support, use progressive international experience of similar services, and take into account the specifics of Russian conditions.
Keywords: penal enforcement system; probation; Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia; penal enforcement inspectorates; individual program of resocialization; social adaptation and social rehabilitation.
2.Gabaraev A.Sh., Novikov A.V. Prospects for the implementation of the Institute of probation in the modern penitentiary policy of the Russian Federation. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya=Modern Problems of Science and Education, 2015, no. 2-2, p. 882. (In Russ.).
3. Kulikov V. The prison department will create a new service to help former prisoners. Rossiiskaya gazeta=Russian Newspaper, 2021, no. 53 (8404). Available at: https://rg.ru/2021/03/14/tiuremnoe-vedomstvo-sozdast-novuiu-sluzhbudlia-pomoshchi-byvshim-zakliuchennym.html (In Russ.). (Accessed April 15, 2022).
4. Brief description of the penal enforcement system of the Russian Federation. Federal’naya sluzhba ispolneniya nakazanii Rossiiskoi Federatsii: ofitsial’nyi sait [Federal Penitentiary Service of the Russian Federation: official website]. Available at: https://fsin.gov.ru/structure/inspector/iao/statistika/Kratkaya%20har-ka%20UIS/ (In Russ.). (Accessed April 20, 2022).
5. Obzor zakonodatel’stva Skandinavskikh i Baltiiskikh stran po sluzhbe probatsii (ugolovnomu nadzoru) [Review of the legislation of the Scandinavian and Baltic countries on probation service (criminal supervision)]. Saint Petersburg: Grazhdanskii kontrol’, 2005. 220 p.
6. Probation. Bol’shoi yuridicheskii slovar’ [Big legal dictionary]. Available at: https://jurisprudence.academic.ru/5224 (Accessed April 15, 2022).
7. Slabkaya D.N., Novikov A.V. Humanization of criminal legislation. Foreign experience in the functioning of probation services. Voprosy rossiiskogo i mezhdunarodnogo prava=Matters of Russian and International Law, 2020, vol. 10, no. 3-1, pp. 106–114. (In Russ.).
8. Characteristics of persons registered in the penal institutions. Federal’naya sluzhba ispolneniya nakazanii Rossiiskoi Federatsii: ofitsial’nyi sait [Federal Penitentiary Service of the Russian Federation: official website]. Available at: https:// fsin.gov.ru/structure/inspector/iao/statistika/Xar-ka%20v%20YII/Kharakteristika%20lits,%20sostoyashchikh%20na%20 uchete%20v%20ugolovno-ispolnitel’nykh%20inspektsiyakh.pdf (In Russ.). (Accessed April 28, 2022).
9. Tsareva M. Draft law on probation may be submitted to the State Duma in 2022. Vedomosti=Bulletin, 2022, January 31. Available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/society/articles/2022/01/31/907187-zakonoproekt-probatsii (In Russ.). (Accessed April 15, 2022).
10. Cohen T.H., Starr V.L. Survey of U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services Agencies’ adaptations to COVID-19. Federal Probation Journal, 2021, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 14–23. Available at: https://www.uscourts.gov/federal-probationjournal/2021/06/survey-us-probation-and-pretrial-services-agencies-adaptations (accessed April 11, 2022).
11. Linderborg H., Tolvanen M.J., Andersson P. Probation in Europe. Finland. Utrecht, 2013. 49 p. ISBN/EAN: 978-90820804-0-7. Available at: https://www.cep-probation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Probation-in-Europe-chapterFinland-2020.pdf (accessed April 29, 2022).
12. RFS – the Swedish Association of Voluntary Community Workers. RFS: website. Available at: https://rfs.se/wp-content/ uploads/2018/06/Faktablad-RFS-eng-2016.pdf (accessed April 11, 2022).
13. Probation Services in the United Kingdom. The National Probation Service: website. Available at: https://www. nationalprobationservice.co.uk/ (accessed April 11, 2022).