Introduction: the article is devoted to the historic background of the prison system in the Kuban and features of the prison institutions formation in Yekaterinodar – the center of the Kuban Oblast, formed in 1860. The article, based on the comprehension of historical experience and analysis of archival materials, shows the impact of the 1860– 1870 state-legal reforms on construction of new and enlargement of current prisons and studies the specifics of prisoner detention conditions. It reveals the role of the Yekaterinodar Military Prison Committee “Prisons Custody Society” in enhancement of Yekaterinodar’s penitentiary institutions: organization of places of detention and provision of the necessary detention regime; control over detainee’s welfare; improvement of medical care for prisoners, etc. Purpose: to reflect development features of penitentiary institutions in the Kuban as a whole and Yekaterinodar in particular. The methodological basis of the research consists of philosophical, general scientific and private scientific methods (dialectical, system-structural, historical-genetic, comparative, formal-legal, etc.). Discussion: based on a brief analysis of the works of N.I. Galkina, N.V. Slavinskii, M.K. Batchayeva, S.A. Lobova, etc., devoted to the issues under consideration, as well as the study of materials contained in the funds of the State Archive of Krasnodar Territory, the author presents chronological background of formation and development of the Kuban prison institutions. As a result of the conducted research, the researcher comes to the following conclusion: since Yekaterinodar acquired the status of a civil city in 1867, there was a sharp increase in out-of-town visitors, which led to a rise in the number of crimes and, accordingly, persons serving sentences in the form of imprisonment. It involved the expansion of existing prison facilities and construction of new ones, in particular, the Yekaterinodar regional prison in 1876. The establishment of the Yekaterinodar Military Prison Committee “Prisons Custody Society” in 1867, which was in charge of the entire Kuban penitentiary system, helped achieve some success in prison guardianship within its competence. The development of guardianship in relation to prisoners should be considered one of the mechanisms that solved the problem of improving prisoners’ situation. This activity was financed by state and private charitable funds. The author also notes that the Kuban prisons addressed acute problems, characteristic, however, of the entire penitentiary system, such as insufficient funding of prison facilities, unsuitability of prison facilities, i.e. overcrowding, and harsh detention conditions
Keywords: Kuban Oblast; Yekaterinodar; places of detention in the Kuban; Yekaterinodar military prison; Yekaterinodar regional prison; Yekaterinodar Prison Committee; prison guardianship; prison financing.
Head of the Interregional Training
Center for the Special Force of the Federal Penal Service
Administation in the Krasnodar Territory, Sochi, Russian
Federation, PhD. in Law. O
, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Batchaeva M.K. Deyatel’nost’ rossiiskogo «Obshchestva popechitel’nogo o tyur’makh» vo vtoroi polovine XIX – nachale XX veka (na materialakh Stavropol’ya i Kubani): avto-referat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata istoricheskikh nauk [Activity of the Russian “Prisons Custody Society” in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries (case study of Stavropol and the Kuban): Candidate of Sciences (History) dissertation abstract]. Stavropol, 2009. 25 p. 2. Galkina N. I. Institut tyuremnogo popechitel’stva v Rossiiskoi Imperii i ego osobennosti na Kubani: avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [The institute of prison guardianship in the Russian Empire and its features in the Kuban: Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Krasnodar, 2009. 30 p. Available at: https:// kubsau.ru/upload/iblock/8c3/8c39e35854fa5423059963ffaea049e5.pdf (accessed September 1, 2021). 3. Gernet M.N. Istoriya tsarskoi tyur’my : v 5 t. [History of the tsarist prison : in 5 vol.]. Moskow : Gosyurizdat, 1960–1963. 4. Ekaterinodar-Krasnodar: dva veka goroda v datakh, sobytiyakh, vospominaniyakh…. Materialy k letopisi [EkaterinodarKrasnodar: two centuries of the city in dates, events, memories.... Materials for the chronicle]., 1993. 800 p. 5. Zakharov M.V., Spitsyna O.O., Lebedeva A.D. Evolyutsiya rossiiskoi penitentsiarnoi sistemy v usloviyakh liberal’nykh reform 1861-1881 gg.: monografiya [Evolution of the Russian penitentiary system in the conditions of the 1861-1881 liberal reforms: monograph]. Krasnodar: Krasnodarskii filial VYuI FSIN Rossii, 2011. 183 p. 6. Krainskii D.V. Materialy k issledovaniyu istorii russkikh tyurem v svyazi s istoriei uchrezhdeniya Obshchestva popechitel’nogo o tyur’makh [Materials for the study of the history of Russian prisons in connection with the history of the establishment of “Prisons Custody Society”]. Chernigov: tip. Gub. zem., 1912. 133 p. 7. Lobova S.A. On the question of the Ekaterinodar Military Prison Committee. Gumanitarnye, sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie i obshchestvennye nauki= Humanities, Social-economic and Social Science, 2015, no. 11-1, pp. 292–294. (In Russ.). 8. Lobova S.A. Stanovlenie i razvitie penitentsiarnoi sistemy Kubani v kontse XVIII v. – 1920-e gody (istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie): avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [Formation and development of the Kuban penitentiary system at the end of the 18th century – the 1920s (historical and legal research): Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Krasnodar, 2012. 29 p. 9. Martynova T.V. Development of the Kuban prison system in the first half of the 19th century. Vestnik Vladimirskogo yuridicheskogo instituta=Bulletin of Vladimir Law Institute, 2006, no. 1, pp. 139–141. (In Russ.). 10. Nikitin V.N. Tyur’ma i ssylka. Istoricheskoe, zakonodatel’noe, administra-tivnoe i bytovoe polozhenie zaklyuchennykh, peresyl’nykh, ikh detei i osvobozhdennykh iz pod strazhi, so vremen vozniknoveniya russkoi tyur’my do nashikh dnei. 1560–1880 g. [Prison and exile. Historical, legislative, administrative and living conditions of prisoners, prisoners in transit, their children and those released from custody, from the time of the emergence of the Russian prison to the present day. 1560–1880]. Moscow: Kniga po trebovaniyu, 2011. 665 p. 11. Osnovnye administrativno-territorial’nye preobrazovaniya na Kubani (1793-1985) [Key administrative-territorial transformations in the Kuban (1793-1985)]. Krasnodar: Kn. Izd-vo, 1986. 100 p. 12. Ostapenko P.I., Siritsa I.V. History of the Yekaterinodar regional prison. Vestnik Vladimirskogo yuridicheskogo instituta=Bulletin of Vladimir Law Institute, 2007, vol. 3, no. 4. 184–187. (In Russ.). 13. Pechnikov A.P. Tyuremnye uchrezhdeniya rossiiskogo gosudarstva (1649 – oktyabr’ 1917 gg.): istoricheskaya khronika [Prison institutions of the Russian state (1649 – October 1917): historical chronicle]. Moscow: Shchit-M, 2004. 324 p. 14. Piontkovskii A.A. Tyur’movedenie, ego predmet, soderzhanie, zadachi i znachenie [Prison studies, its subject, content, tasks and meaning]. Odessa: tip. Shtaba Odes. voen. okr., 1892. 16 p. 15. Poznyshev S.V. Uchenie o karatel’nykh merakh i mere nakazaniya : kurs, sostavlennyi po lektsiyam [Doctrine of punitive measures and measure of punishment: a course compiled from lectures]. Moscow: URSS, LENAND, cop. 2016. 181 p. 16. Rasskazov L.P., Uporov I.V. Lishenie svobody v Rossii: istoki, razvitie, perspektivy: monografiya [Incarceration in Russia: origins, development, prospects: monograph]. Krasnodar: Krasnodarskii yuridicheskii institut MVD Rossii, 1999. 490 p. 17. Rasskazov L.P. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: uglublennyi kurs: uchebnik [Theory of state and law: advanced course: textbook]. Moscow : Infra-M, 2015. 559 p. 18. Slavinskii N.V. Stanovlenie i razvitie instituta tyuremnykh inspektsii Ros-siiskoi Imperii i ego spetsifika na Kubani: avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk [Formation and development of the Institute of Prison Inspections of the Russian Empire and its specifics in the Kuban : Candidate of Sciences (Law) dissertation abstract]. Krasnodar, 2009. 27 p. 19. Tagantsev N.S. Russkoe ugolovnoe pravo: lektsii: chast’ obshchaya: v 2 t. [Russian Criminal Law: lectures: general part: in 2 vol.]. Compiled and edited by N.I. Zagorodnikov. Moscow: Nauka, 1994. 21 p. 20. Uporov I.V. Penitentsiarnaya politika Rossii v 18–20x vv.: istoriko-pravovoi analiz tendentsii [Penitentiary policy of Russia in the 18th–20th centuries: historical and legal analysis of trends]. Sankt-Petersburg: Yurid. tsentr Press, 2004. 608 p. 21. Foinitskii I.Ya. Uchenie o nakazanii v svyazi s tyur’movedeniem [The doctrine of punishment in connection with prison studies]. Moscow, 2000. 462 p