Introduction: the article reveals how extremism and terrorism are perceived in different mental civilizations: paganism (polytheism), monotheism and scientific worldview, from the standpoint of the legal consciousness of ordinary, canonical and secularethnic groups. The aim is to show that those phenomena which in the modern world are called extremism and terrorism and are subject to criminal punishment were perceived in exactly the opposite way in the mental eras of paganism and monotheism. Research methods: we use analysis of historical information about the phenomena of extremism and terrorism in different eras, related to the civilizational mentality of ethnic groups and peoples; we also use generalization (synthesis) of the information obtained. Results: revealing the attitude toward the phenomena that are now called “extremism” and “terrorism” in different mental civilizations allows us not only to understand the historically determined nature of these phenomena, but also to build an adequate system to counter them by changing existing approaches and methods. Conclusions: modern religious extremists and terrorists representinterests of the religious worldview and the way of life that are leaving the historical arena. Their re-socialization should be carried out taking into account civilizational mentality of religious people, relying primarily on the tolerant capabilities of the Holy Scriptures themselves. In the coming years, against the background of the natural decline of religious extremism and terrorism, there will be a rise of such types of “secular” extremism and terrorism as political, social, racial and linguistic, i.e. all those types of extremism that are listed in Articles 280 and 282 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. In order to counteract these types of extremism, it is necessary, first of all, to develop high legal awareness in citizens; in this regard, it is crucial that educational and psychological services of the Russian Penal System carry out systemwide and purposeful work in this direction.
Keywords: extremism; terrorism; monotheism; paganism; scientific worldview; religious wars
Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russian Federation
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Research Institute of FSIN Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
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